Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy characterized by recurrent genetic, epigenetic, and metabolic abnormalities. As a result of our increasing knowledge of the underlying biology of AML leading to rational drug development, several new targeted agents have been recently added to our therapeutic arsenal. The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) or hypomethylating agents (HMAs) is safe and effective in older patients with newly diagnosed AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. Glasdegib, a hedgehog pathway inhibitor, may be used in combination with LDAC for the same indication and improves survival compared with LDAC alone. In newly diagnosed, fit, older patients with therapy-related AML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, the liposome-encapsulated combination of daunorubicin and cytarabine (CPX-351) has shown superiority over the 7 + 3 regimen. The presence of an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation can be effectively targeted by ivosidenib or enasidenib, respectively. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin improves event-free survival in CD33+ patients with favorable or intermediate-risk cytogenetics. With new targeted agents available, comprehensive genomic characterization of AML at diagnosis and relapse is increasingly necessary to select optimal treatment. Herein, we review the new single-agent and combination biologics (omitting FLT3 inhibitors, which are discussed separately) and provide recommendations on how to best use and manage patients on these regimens in clinical practice.

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