The treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has a history dating back to 1968 with the first successful transplant for a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The omission of conditioning for patients with SCID owing to their inability to reject allogeneic grafts and the increasing use of reduced intensity conditioning regimens often result in a state of mixed or split donor-recipient chimerism. The use of gene therapy (GT) via retroviral or lentiviral transduction of autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is expected to correct only a portion of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. The consequences of partial correction after either form of cellular therapy differ according to how the genetic deficiency affects immune cell development and function. Moreover, the conditioning regimen or lack thereof impacts the cell lineages at risk of partial correction. Advances in our understanding of immune reconstitution after HCT and GT for SCID, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease are discussed.

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