Thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications are prevalent in patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis. Given the impact on morbidity and mortality, reducing the risk of thrombosis and/or hemorrhage is a major therapeutic goal. Historically, patients have been risk stratified on the basis of traditional factors, such as advanced age and thrombosis history. However, multiple factors contribute to the thrombotic tendency, including gender, mutational profile, inflammatory stress, and abnormal cell adhesion. Management includes cardiovascular risk reduction and use of antiplatelet therapy, depending on myeloproliferative neoplasm subtype and mutational status. Anticoagulation is a mainstay of therapy for those with venous thrombosis, but practice patterns remain heterogeneous. Cytoreduction is indicated for higher-risk patients, but efficacy may depend on the involved vascular bed. Management of special situations, such as unusual site thrombosis, bleeding, the perioperative period, and pregnancy, are especially challenging. In this article, risk factors and treatment strategies for myeloproliferative neoplasm thrombosis and bleeding, including special situations, are reviewed. Insights gained from recent studies may lead to the development of a more precise risk classification and tailored therapy.

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