Lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes are defined using prognostic scoring systems that incorporate data on bone marrow blast percentage, degree and numbers of cytopenias, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Increasingly, these are incorporating molecular abnormalities to further refine risk. Therapy is geared toward predominating cytopenias, with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents luspatercept and lenalidomide used to ameliorate anemia, romiplostim and eltrombopag tackling thrombocytopenia, and hypomethylating agents and antithymocyte globulin palliating pancytopenia. Newer agents on the horizon are abrogating the downstream sequelae of specific molecular mutations. One challenge for the future is in further modifying response criteria to align with improvements that are clinically meaningful to patients.

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