Venous thrombosis (VTE) in children and neonates presents numerous management challenges. Although increasing in frequency, VTE in children and neonates is still uncommon compared with adults. The epidemiology of VTE is vastly different in neonates vs children vs adolescents vs adults. In reality, pediatric thrombosis should be viewed as a multitude of rare diseases (eg, renal vein thrombosis, spontaneous thrombosis, catheter-related thrombosis, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis), all requiring different approaches to diagnosis and with different short- and long-term consequences, but linked by the use of common therapeutic agents. Further, children have fundamentally different physiology in terms of blood flow, developmental hemostasis, and, likely, endothelial function. The American Society ofHematology 2017 Guidelines for Management of Venous Thromboembolism: Treatment of Pediatric VTE provides up-to-date evidence-based guidelines related to treatment. Therefore, this article will focus on the practical use of therapeutic agents in the management of pediatric VTE, especially unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and oral vitamin K antagonists, as the most common anticoagulants used in children. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) remain in clinical trials in children and should not be used outside of formal trials for the foreseeable future.

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