Mutational profiling has fundamentally changed our approach to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients with AML are routinely profiled for the presence of mutations in FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, and, more recently, TP53. In this chapter, we review the role of mutational profiling to help define disease biology in AML, particularly among patients with putatively intermediate-risk disease. We describe the body of evidence supporting the utility of mutational profiling when performed at the time of diagnosis (to identify prognostic and targetable mutations), at the time of complete remission (to assess minimal residual disease as a marker for relapse), and at the time of relapse (to identify therapeutic targets and eligibility for clinical trials). We further identify particular mutations that have been shown to affect prognosis across the established European LeukemiaNet risk categories and discuss which mutational events might be used to alter the approach to patient care at various time points during the disease course. We also review the evidence in support of molecular profiling for assessment of minimal/measurable residual disease and describe the current landscape of studies designed to validate this approach.

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