• The number of autoHCT and alloHCT grew faster in Non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics compared to Non-Hispanic Whites.

  • Survival after autoHCT and alloHCT improved over time for all racial/ ethnic groups, though African Americans have worse outcomes.

There has been an increase in volume as well as improvement in overall survival (OS) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematologic disorders. It is unknown if these changes have impacted racial/ethnic minorities equally. In this observational study from Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research of 79,904 autologous (auto) and 65,662 allogeneic (allo) HCTs, we examined the volume and rates of change of auto HCT and allo HCT over time and trends in OS in 4 racial/ethnic groups: Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), Non-Hispanic African Americans (NHAAs), Hispanics across five 2-year cohorts from 2009 to 2018. Rates of change were compared using Poisson model. Adjusted and unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models examined trends in mortality in the 4 racial/ethnic groups over 5 study time periods. The rates of increase in volume were significantly higher for Hispanics and NHAAs vs. NHW for both autoHCT and alloHCT. Adjusted overall mortality after autoHCT was comparable across all racial/ethnic groups. NHAA adults (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22; p=0.004) and pediatric patients (HR 1.62; 95% CI 1.3-2.03; p<0.001 had a higher risk of mortality after alloHCT compared to NHWs. Improvement in OS over time was seen in all 4 groups after both autoHCT and alloHCT.Our study shows the rate of change for the use of autoHCT and alloHCT is higher in NHAAs and Hispanics compared to NHWs. Survival after autoHCT and alloHCT improved over time, however NHAAs have worse OS after alloHCT which has persisted. Continued efforts are needed to mitigate disparities for patients requiring alloHCT.

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