• The use of metformin was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of MPN, with the largest effect seen for the subtype ET and PV.

  • A dose-response relationship supported the association with increasing treatment duration, in particular ≥5 years.

Previous studies have suggested that metformin has beneficial effects beyond its glucose-lowering properties, particularly in terms of its potential as an antineoplastic and cancer-preventive agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between metformin use and the risk of myeloprolifera-tive neoplasms (MPN). We conducted a population-based case-control study utilizing Danish registers. Cases with MPN diagnosed between 2010-2018 were identified and metformin use prior to the MPN diagnosis was ascertained. We compared metformin use among cases with MPN and an age- and sex matched control group from the Danish general population to estimate age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and fully adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for the association between metformin use and risk of MPN. The study population included 3,816 cases and 19,080 controls. Overall, 7.0% of cases and 8.2% of controls were categorized as ever-users of metformin resulting in an OR for MPN of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and an aOR of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.61-0.81). Long-term metformin use (≥5 years) was more infrequent and comprised 1.1% of cases and 2.0% of controls resulting in an OR of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42-0.79) and an aOR of 0.45 (95% CI, 0.33-0.63). A dose-response relationship was observed when cumulative duration of treatment was analyzed, and this was consistent in stratified analyses of sex, age, and MPN subtypes. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with significantly lower odds of an MPN diagnosis, indi-cating its potential cancer-preventive effect. Due to the retrospective design, causality cannot be in-ferred.

This content is only available as a PDF.
Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), permitting only noncommercial, nonderivative use with attribution. All other rights reserved.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview

Supplemental data