• Close integration of leukemia and transplant (HCT) services and use of haploidentical donors results in greater access to HCT

  • 2. Racial disparity is reduced by this approach, but caregiver requirements continue to limit HCT access for black patients

Few patients with non-favorable risk (NFR) acute leukemia and MDS (AL/MDS) have historically accessed allogeneic transplantation (HCT). We assessed whether this can be improved by the integration of HCT/leukemia care and use of haploidentical donors (HID). Of 256 consecutive patients aged ≤75 who received initial therapy at our center for NFR AL/MDS from 2016 to 2021, 147 (57%) proceeded to planned HCT (70% for patients aged <60). On logistic regression analysis, age (OR 1.50 per 10-year increment, p<0.001), race- black vs white (OR 2.05, p=0.023), were significant factors for failure to receive HCT. Reasons for no HCT were: comorbidities (37%), poor KPS, lack of adequate caregiver support, refractory malignancy (19% each) and patient refusal (17%). Lack of donor or insurance were rarely cited (3% each). In older patients (≥60 years), comorbidities (49 vs. 15%, p<0.001) and KPS (25% vs. 10%, p=0.06) were more common reasons, and lack of caregiver support was less common (13% vs. 30%, p=0.031). In black vs. white patients, lack of caregivers (37% vs 11%, p=0.002) was more frequent. Median time from initial treatment to HCT was 118 days and was similar for black vs white patients (112 vs 122 days, p=0.80). On landmark analysis, HCT within 6 months of initial treatment resulted in better survival. On multivariable analysis, HCT resulted in a significant survival benefit (HR 0.60, p=0.020). With the above approach, the majority of currently treated patents aged ≤75 can access planned HCT. Black patients remain at higher risk for not receiving HCT.

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