• HDAC1 inhibition dampens IRF4 transcription through histone hyperacetylation, thereby reducing the expression of the survival mediator PIM2

  • Simultaneous targeting of the intrinsic HDAC1-IRF4 axis plus externally activated PIM2 represents an efficient therapeutic option for MM

Multiple myeloma (MM) preferentially expands and acquires drug resistance in bone marrow. We herein examined the role of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the constitutive activation of the master transcription factor IRF4 and the pro-survival mediator PIM2 kinase in MM cells. The knockdown or inhibition of HDAC1 by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 reduced the basal expression of IRF4 and PIM2 in MM cells. Mechanistically, the inhibition of HDAC1 decreased IRF4 transcription through histone hyperacetylation and inhibiting the recruitment of RNA polymerase II at the IRF4 locus, thereby reducing IRF4-targeting genes, including PIM2. In addition to the transcriptional regulation of PIM2 by the HDAC1-IRF4 axis, PIM2 was markedly up-regulated by external stimuli from bone marrow stromal cells and IL-6. Up-regulated PIM2 contributed to the attenuation of the cytotoxic effects of MS-275. Class I HDAC and PIM kinase inhibitors cooperatively suppressed MM cell growth in the presence of IL-6 and in vivo. Therefore, the present results demonstrate the potential of the simultaneous targeting of the intrinsic HDAC1-IRF4 axis plus externally activated PIM2 as an efficient therapeutic option for MM fostered in bone marrow.

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