• The large PETHEMA registry shows that secondary AML represents 27% of AML cases, and confirms its independent adverse prognostic value.

  • Subcategories of secondary AML were analyzed, including MSD/MPN, and therapy-related cases, with different features and outcomes

Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) comprises a heterogeneous group of patients, and is associated with poor overall survival (OS). We analyze the characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes of sAML adult patients of the Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología (PETHEMA) registry. Overall, 6211 (72.9%) were de novo and 2310 (27.1%) sAML, divided into myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS-AML, 44%), MDS/myeloproliferative (MDS/MPN-AML, 10%), MPN-AML (11%), therapy-related (t-AML, 25%), and antecedent neoplasia without prior chemotherapy/radiotherapy (neo-AML, 9%). Compared to de novo, sAML were older (median age 69 years old), had more ECOG ≥2 (35%) or high-risk cytogenetics (40%), less FLT3-ITD (11%) and NPM1 mutations (21%), and received less intensive chemotherapy regimens (38%) (all P<0.001). Median OS was higher in de novo than in sAML (10.9 vs 5.6 months, P<0.001); and shorter in sAML after hematologic disorder (MDS, MDS/MPN or MPN) as compared to t-AML and neo-AML (5.3 vs 6.1 vs 5.7 months, respectively, P=0.04). After intensive chemotherapy, median OS was better among de novo and neo-AML patients (17.2 and 14.6 months). No OS differences were observed after hypomethylating agents according to type of AML. sAML was as an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS. We confirm high prevalence and adverse features of sAML and we establish its independent adverse prognostic value. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02607059.

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