The prospect of a clinical strategy using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII (FVIII) has been highly desirable. This was initially anticipated by promising data from clinical studies on AAV5-FVIII in men with severe hemophilia A. However, long-term follow-up showed a unique efficacy concern on the sustainability and durability derived from a continuous decline in the FVIII transgene levels starting 1 year after vector injection through year 5. Additional follow-up of early-phase studies and outcomes of an ongoing phase 3 study will likely provide evidence on the feasibility of this approach. Here, the potential underlying mechanisms of the FVIII declining levels, together with the revision of several unique early and late onset findings, are discussed. The lack of long-term preclinical studies in large animal models prevents the firm conclusion that FVIII levels decline was unexpected. It is possible that the combination of vector manufacturing platform and dose, accompanied with ectopic expression of supraphysiologic levels of FVIII at short-term follow-up, may all contribute to the sustainability and durability of the transgene levels. Notably, vector readministration to further improve the FVIII levels is not feasible at this time. Thus, the need of a one-and-done AAV strategy to achieve sustain FVIII levels of expression is sine qua non to impact favorably the disease phenotype.

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Author notes

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The complete text of this Blood Advances Talk is available as a data supplement.

Contribution: V.R.A. reviewed the literature, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript.

Competing Interests

Conflict-of-interest disclosure: V.R.A. is a member of the scientific advisory board for GeneVenti and Ask Bio for programs in liver gene therapy and holds patents for novel FVIII variants and for cell-based therapy for inhibitors in hemophilia.

Supplemental data