• A low frequency of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in AML is an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome

  • These data provide a strong rationale for the development of consolidation protocols aimed at enhancing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell responses

In several tumor subtypes, increased infiltration of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells has been shown to have the highest prognostic value compared to other immune subsets. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), similar findings have been based solely on the inference of transcriptomic data and have not been assessed with respect to confounding factors. This study aimed at determining, by immunophenotypic analysis (flow or mass cytometry) of peripheral blood from AML patients at diagnosis, the prognostic impact of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell frequency. This was adjusted for potential confounders (age at diagnosis, disease status, European LeukemiaNet classification, leukocytosis, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a time-dependent covariate). The cohort was composed of 198 newly diagnosed AML patients. By univariate analysis, patients with lower Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells at diagnosis had significantly lower 5-year overall and relapse-free survivals. These results were confirmed in multivariate analysis (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.55[1.04-2.30], p=0.030 and HR=1.64[1.06, 2.53], p=0.025). Immunophenotypic alterations observed in patients with lower Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells included a loss of some cytotoxic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell subsets and a decreased expression of BTN3A on the surface of blasts. Samples expanded regardless of their Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell levels and displayed similar effector functions in vitro. This study confirms the prognostic value of elevated Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells among lymphocytes, in newly diagnosed AML patients. These results provide a strong rationale to consider consolidation protocols aiming at enhancing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell responses.

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