• BTK C481S was most common in both groups; in the acalabrutinib arm, low-VAF T474I (n=9/47; 8 co-occurring with C481S) but no L528W was seen

  • More patients receiving acalabrutinib acquired BTK mutations, though overall, patients with BTK mutation did not fare worse vs those without

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progression during Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor treatment is typically characterized by emergent B-cell receptor pathway mutations. Using peripheral blood samples from relapsed/refractory CLL patients in ELEVATE-RR (NCT02477696) (median 2 prior therapies), we report clonal evolution data for patients progressing on acalabrutinib or ibrutinib (median follow-up 41 months). Paired (baseline and progression) samples were available for 47 (excluding 1 Richter) acalabrutinib-treated and 30 (excluding 6 Richter) ibrutinib-treated patients. At progression, emergent BTK mutations were observed in 31 (66%) acalabrutinib-treated and 11 (37%) ibrutinib-treated patients (median variant allele fraction [VAF]: 16.1% vs 15.6%). BTK C481S mutations were most common in both groups; T474I (n = 9; 8 co-occurring with C481) and the novel E41V mutation within the pleckstrin homology domain of BTK (n = 1) occurred with acalabrutinib, while neither mutation occurred with ibrutinib. L528W and A428D co-mutations presented in one ibrutinib-treated patient. Pre-existing TP53 mutations were present in 25 (53.2%) acalabrutinib-treated and 16 (53.3%) ibrutinib-treated patients at screening. Emergent TP53 mutations occurred with acalabrutinib and ibrutinib (13% vs 7%; median VAF: 6.0% vs 37.3%, respectively). Six acalabrutinib-treated patients and one ibrutinib-treated patient had emergent TP53/BTK co-mutations. Emergent PLCG2 mutations occurred in 3 (6%) acalabrutinib-treated and 6 (20%) ibrutinib-treated patients. One acalabrutinib-treated patient and 4 ibrutinib-treated patients had emergent BTK/PLCG2 co-mutations. While common BTK C481 mutations were observed with both treatments, patterns of mutation and co-mutation frequency, mutation VAF, and uncommon BTK variants varied with acalabrutinib (T474I and E41V) and ibrutinib (L528W, A428D) in this patient population.

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