• Overall survival and most safety outcomes with axi-cel were consistent across race/ethnicity in relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma

  • Real-world outcomes with CAR T-cell therapy are different among non-Hispanic Black patients and may be related to barriers to access

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). Despite extensive data supporting the use of axi-cel in patients with LBCL, outcomes stratified by race and ethnicity groups are limited. Here, we report clinical outcomes with axi-cel in patients with R/R LBCL by race and ethnicity in both real-world and clinical trial settings. In the real-world setting, 1290 patients with R/R LBCL who received axi-cel between 2017-2020 were identified from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database; 106 and 169 patients were included from the ZUMA-1 and ZUMA-7 clinical trials, respectively. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) for race and ethnicity groups are reported. Overall survival was consistent across race/ethnicity groups. However, non-Hispanic (NH) Black patients had lower overall response rate (OR, 0.37, [95% CI, 0.22-0.63]) and lower complete response rate (OR, 0.57, [95% CI, 0.33-0.97]) than NH-white patients. NH-Black patients also had a shorter progression-free survival versus NH-white (HR, 1.41, [95% CI, 1.04-1.90]) and NH-Asian patients (HR, 1.67, [95% CI, 1.08-2.59]). NH-Asian patients had a longer duration of response compared with NH-white (HR, 0.56, [95% CI, 0.33-0.94]) and Hispanic patients (HR, 0.54, [95% CI, 0.30-0.97]). There was no difference in cytokine release syndrome by race/ethnicity; however, higher rates of any-grade ICANS were observed in NH-white patients compared with other patients. These results provide important context when treating patients with R/R LBCL with axi-cel across different racial and ethnic groups. ZUMA-1 (NCT02348216) and ZUMA-7 (NCT03391466), both registered on ClinicalTrials.gov

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