Manageable safety and encouraging preliminary efficacy support further evaluation of BCL-2/MDM2 inhibition in AML
IDH1/2 and RUNX1 mutations were associated with ven-idasa sensitivity; TP53 mutations were unfavorable
This phase 1b trial (NCT02670044) evaluated venetoclax-idasanutlin in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two-dimensional dose escalation (DE, n = 50) was performed for venetoclax daily with idasanutlin on days 1-5 in 28-day cycles followed by dosing schedule optimization (n = 6) to evaluate reduced venetoclax schedules (21-/14-day dosing). Common adverse events (occurring in ≥40% of patients) included diarrhea (87.3% of patients), nausea (74.5%), vomiting (52.7%), hypokalemia (50.9%), and febrile neutropenia (45.5%). During DE, across all doses, composite complete remission (CRc; CR + CR with incomplete blood count recovery + CR with incomplete platelet count recovery) rate was 26.0% and morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) rate was 12%. For anticipated recommended phase 2 doses (venetoclax 600 mg + idasanutlin 150 mg; venetoclax 600 mg + idasanutlin 200 mg), combined CRc rate was 34.3% and MLFS rate was 14.3%. Pretreatment IDH1/2 and RUNX1 mutations were associated with higher CRc rates (50.0% and 45.0%, respectively). CRc rate in patients with TP53 mutations was 20.0%, with responses noted among those with co-occurring IDH and RUNX1 mutations. In 12/36 evaluable patients, 25 emergent TP53 mutations were observed; 22 were present at baseline with low TP53 variant allele frequency (median 0.0095% [range, 0.0006-0.4]). Venetoclax-idasanutlin showed manageable safety and encouraging efficacy in unfit R/R AML patients. IDH1/2 and RUNX1 mutations were associated with venetoclax-idasanutlin sensitivity, even in some patients with co-occurring TP53 mutations; most emergent TP53 clones were pre-existing. Our findings will aid ongoing/future trials of BCL-2/MDM2 inhibitor combinations.