• Patients with DNMT3A Overgrowth Syndrome/DOS are at increased risk of hematologic malignancies

  • Patients with DOS should be prospectively monitored for the development of leukemia

DNMT3A Overgrowth Syndrome (DOS, also known as Tatton-Brown Rahman Syndrome/TBRS) is one of several overgrowth syndromes with complex phenotypes caused by constitutional mutations in genes encoding epigenetic regulators. The clinical features of DOS are variable but include overgrowth (tall stature and/or obesity) and intellectual disability. DNMT3A is essential for de novo DNA methylation and plays an important role in hematopoiesis. Somatic mutations in DNMT3A are among the most common initiating mutations in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and in elderly people with clonal hematopoiesis. The natural history of DOS has not been fully explored since the first description of this rare condition in 2014. Because of the association of somatic DNMT3A mutations and leukemia development, we assessed information from the ~200 known DOS patients world-wide and were able to document eight with hematologic malignancies. Based on this prevalence, we suggest DOS is a cancer predisposition syndrome, especially for hematologic malignancies. Using recommendations from an expert panel, we suggest DOS patients should be prospectively monitored for hematologic malignancies, which may allow for early intervention and permit its natural history to be better defined.

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