• Granulocyte MV from septic shock patients display a heterogeneous profile of plasmin generation capacity driven by the uPA/uPAR system

  • High level of PGC confers to granulocyte MVs the capacity to reduce clot formation and improves survival in a mouse model of septic shock.

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.

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