The process of categorizing the antigenic molecules and epitopes associated with human white cells, via the collaborative study of monoclonal antibodies, dates back to the early 1980s, when the first HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen) Workshop was held in Paris. This initial meeting listed only 15 molecular entities, but it created an internationally agreed basis for the nomenclature of leukocyte molecules (the CD scheme) and also provided a forum for reporting studies on their function and practical relevance. A further six HLDA meetings have been held since the first Paris meeting. The most recent of these (“HLDA7”) took place in 2000 in Harrogate, United Kingdom, and the proceedings of the meeting (Leucocyte Typing VII1) have recently been published.

The aims and approaches of HLDA7. It was apparent at the previous meeting, HLDA6, held in Kobe, Japan, in 1996, that the technique of detecting molecular entities by screening coded panels of monoclonal antibodies against human cells was becoming obsolescent. Antibodies to the most immunogenic molecules had already been produced, and fewer laboratories than in the early days were prepared to devote resources to raising new antibodies, since the probability of finding novel reagents becomes ever less likely. In consequence many antibodies in the sixth workshop were reagents (submitted by laboratories that were not equipped to characterize them) that proved to be of known specificity.

With these considerations in mind, HLDA7 adopted a different approach. Instead of screening poorly characterized antibodies, reagents were selected (and actively solicited) for which at least some molecular data were already available. A substantial number of monoclonal antibodies reactive with leukocyte-associated molecules exist that do not meet the traditional criterion for establishing a new CD specificity (ie, the existence of at least 2 independent antibodies of the same specificity). This rule dates from the first HLDA workshop 2 decades ago; since that time biochemical and molecular biological techniques for characterizing the targets of new antibodies have come to be widely used. Consequently, it is now considered appropriate to establish a CD designation for a molecule if its gene has been cloned and at least one specific monoclonal antibody has been studied in the workshop.

Four new sections were introduced in HLDA7 to add to the traditional list from past meetings: Dendritic Cells, Stem/Progenitor Cells, Erythroid Cells, and Carbohydrate Structures. Although it has been recognized for many years that monoclonal antibodies reactive with human leukocytes can be specific for carbohydrate epitopes (eg, the carbohydrate CD category CD15 was identified at the first HLDA workshop), they had not received specific attention at any workshop. The inclusion of erythroid molecules, although it may seem out of place in a leukocyte workshop, was justified by the number of molecules shared between white and red cells (eg, cytokine receptors) that hint at unexplored functions of red cells.

The yield of new CD specificities in HLDA7. This more active approach to the identification of new CD specificities represented a break with tradition, but the results justified the new approach since a total of well over 80 new entities were added to the list of CD specificities. This compares favorably with previous workshops (an average of fewer than 30 CD specificities per workshop), and it also largely avoided the laborious screening in multiple laboratories of antibodies that often prove to be directed against known CD molecules.

Tables 1 and2 list the new specificities established at HLDA7. Full details can be found in Leucocyte Typing VII,1 and molecular, functional, and other data can be found for many of these new specificities on the PROW site.2 

Table 1.

New CD designations

DesignationNameSectionLocus link
CD15u Sulphated CD15 Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD60a GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD60b 9-O-acetyl-GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD60c 7-O-acetyl-GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD75 Lactosamines Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD75s Alpha-2,6-sialylated lactosamines (formerly CDw75 and CDw76) Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD85 ILT/LIR family (see Table 2Dendritic cells NA 
CD110 MPL, TPO R Platelets 4352 
CD111 PRR1/Nectin1 Myeloid cells 5818 
CD112 PRR2 Myeloid cells 5819 
CD133 AC133 Stem/progenitor cells 8842 
CD156b TACE/ADAM17 Adhesion structures 6868 
CD158 KIR family (see Table 2NK cells NA  
CD159a NKG2A NK cells 3821  
CD160 BY55 T cells 11126 
CD162R PEN5 NK cells 6404  
CD167a Discoidin domain R
(DDR1) 
Adhesion structures 780 
CD168 RHAMM Adhesion structures 3161 
CD169 Sialoadhesin Adhesion structures 6614 
CD170 Siglec-5 Adhesion structures 8778 
CD171 L1 Adhesion structures 3897  
CD172a SIRP alpha Adhesion structures 8194  
CD173 Blood group H type 2 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD174 Lewis y Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD175 Tn Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD175s Sialyl-Tn Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD176 TF Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD177 NB1 Myeloid cells NA  
CD178 Fas ligand Cytokine/chemokine receptors 356  
CD179a Vpre-B B cells 7441  
CD179b Lambda 5 B cells 3543 
CD180 RP105 B cells 4064 
CD183 CXCR3 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 2833 
CD184 CXCR4 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 7852 
CD195 CCR5 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 1234 
CDw197 CCR7 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 1236 
CD200 OX2 Nonlineage molecules 4345  
CD201 EPC R Endothelial cells 10544  
CD202b Tie2 (Tek) Endothelial cells 7010  
CD203c NPP3/PDNP3 Myeloid cells 5169 
CD204 Macrophage scavenger R Myeloid cells 4481 
CD205 DEC205 Dendritic cells 4065  
CD206 Macrophage mannose R Dendritic cells 4360  
CD207 Langerin Dendritic cells 50489 
CD208 DC-LAMP Dendritic cells NA 
CD209 DC-SIGN Dendritic cells 30385  
CDw210 IL-10 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3587; 3588 
CD212 IL-12 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3594 
CD213a1 IL-13 R alpha 1 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3597 
CD213a2 IL-13 R alpha 2 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3598 
CDw217 IL-17 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 23765 
CD220 Insulin R Nonlineage molecules 3643  
CD221 IGF1 R Nonlineage molecules 3480 
CD222 Mannose-6-phosphate/IGF2 R Nonlineage molecules 3482 
CD223 LAG-3 Nonlineage molecules 3902  
CD224 Gamma-glutamyl transferase Nonlineage molecules 2678 
CD225 Leu13 Nonlineage molecules 8519  
CD226 DNAM-1 (PTA1) T cells 10666  
CD227 MUC.1 Nonlineage molecules 4582  
CD228 Melanotransferrin Nonlineage molecules 4241  
CD229 Ly9 Nonlineage molecules 4063 
CD230 Prion protein Nonlineage molecules 5621 
CD231 TALLA-1/A15 Nonlineage molecules 7102 
CD232 VESP R Nonlineage molecules 10154  
CD233 Band 3 Erythroid cells 6521  
CD234 Fy-glycoprotein (DARC) Erythroid cells 2532  
CD235a Glycophorin A Erythroid cells 2993  
CD235b Glycophorin B Erythroid cells 2994  
CD235ab Glycophorin A/B crossreactive mabs Erythroid cells NA 
CD236 Glycophorin C/D Erythroid cells NA  
CD236R Glycophorin C Erythroid cells 2995  
CD238 Kell Erythroid cells 3792  
CD239 B-CAM Erythroid cells 4059 
CD240CE Rh30CE Erythroid cells 6006 
CD240D Rh30D Erythroid cells 6007 
CD240DCE Rh30D/CE crossreactive mabs Erythroid cells NA  
CD241 RhAg Erythroid cells 6005  
CD242 ICAM-4 Erythroid cells 3386 
CD243 MDR-1 Stem/progenitor cells NA 
CD244 2B4 NK cells 51744  
CD245 p220/240 T cells NA  
CD246 Anaplastic lymphoma kinase T cells 238  
CD247 Zeta chain T cells 919 
DesignationNameSectionLocus link
CD15u Sulphated CD15 Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD60a GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD60b 9-O-acetyl-GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD60c 7-O-acetyl-GD3 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD75 Lactosamines Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD75s Alpha-2,6-sialylated lactosamines (formerly CDw75 and CDw76) Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD85 ILT/LIR family (see Table 2Dendritic cells NA 
CD110 MPL, TPO R Platelets 4352 
CD111 PRR1/Nectin1 Myeloid cells 5818 
CD112 PRR2 Myeloid cells 5819 
CD133 AC133 Stem/progenitor cells 8842 
CD156b TACE/ADAM17 Adhesion structures 6868 
CD158 KIR family (see Table 2NK cells NA  
CD159a NKG2A NK cells 3821  
CD160 BY55 T cells 11126 
CD162R PEN5 NK cells 6404  
CD167a Discoidin domain R
(DDR1) 
Adhesion structures 780 
CD168 RHAMM Adhesion structures 3161 
CD169 Sialoadhesin Adhesion structures 6614 
CD170 Siglec-5 Adhesion structures 8778 
CD171 L1 Adhesion structures 3897  
CD172a SIRP alpha Adhesion structures 8194  
CD173 Blood group H type 2 Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD174 Lewis y Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD175 Tn Carbohydrate structures NA 
CD175s Sialyl-Tn Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD176 TF Carbohydrate structures NA  
CD177 NB1 Myeloid cells NA  
CD178 Fas ligand Cytokine/chemokine receptors 356  
CD179a Vpre-B B cells 7441  
CD179b Lambda 5 B cells 3543 
CD180 RP105 B cells 4064 
CD183 CXCR3 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 2833 
CD184 CXCR4 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 7852 
CD195 CCR5 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 1234 
CDw197 CCR7 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 1236 
CD200 OX2 Nonlineage molecules 4345  
CD201 EPC R Endothelial cells 10544  
CD202b Tie2 (Tek) Endothelial cells 7010  
CD203c NPP3/PDNP3 Myeloid cells 5169 
CD204 Macrophage scavenger R Myeloid cells 4481 
CD205 DEC205 Dendritic cells 4065  
CD206 Macrophage mannose R Dendritic cells 4360  
CD207 Langerin Dendritic cells 50489 
CD208 DC-LAMP Dendritic cells NA 
CD209 DC-SIGN Dendritic cells 30385  
CDw210 IL-10 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3587; 3588 
CD212 IL-12 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3594 
CD213a1 IL-13 R alpha 1 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3597 
CD213a2 IL-13 R alpha 2 Cytokine/chemokine receptors 3598 
CDw217 IL-17 R Cytokine/chemokine receptors 23765 
CD220 Insulin R Nonlineage molecules 3643  
CD221 IGF1 R Nonlineage molecules 3480 
CD222 Mannose-6-phosphate/IGF2 R Nonlineage molecules 3482 
CD223 LAG-3 Nonlineage molecules 3902  
CD224 Gamma-glutamyl transferase Nonlineage molecules 2678 
CD225 Leu13 Nonlineage molecules 8519  
CD226 DNAM-1 (PTA1) T cells 10666  
CD227 MUC.1 Nonlineage molecules 4582  
CD228 Melanotransferrin Nonlineage molecules 4241  
CD229 Ly9 Nonlineage molecules 4063 
CD230 Prion protein Nonlineage molecules 5621 
CD231 TALLA-1/A15 Nonlineage molecules 7102 
CD232 VESP R Nonlineage molecules 10154  
CD233 Band 3 Erythroid cells 6521  
CD234 Fy-glycoprotein (DARC) Erythroid cells 2532  
CD235a Glycophorin A Erythroid cells 2993  
CD235b Glycophorin B Erythroid cells 2994  
CD235ab Glycophorin A/B crossreactive mabs Erythroid cells NA 
CD236 Glycophorin C/D Erythroid cells NA  
CD236R Glycophorin C Erythroid cells 2995  
CD238 Kell Erythroid cells 3792  
CD239 B-CAM Erythroid cells 4059 
CD240CE Rh30CE Erythroid cells 6006 
CD240D Rh30D Erythroid cells 6007 
CD240DCE Rh30D/CE crossreactive mabs Erythroid cells NA  
CD241 RhAg Erythroid cells 6005  
CD242 ICAM-4 Erythroid cells 3386 
CD243 MDR-1 Stem/progenitor cells NA 
CD244 2B4 NK cells 51744  
CD245 p220/240 T cells NA  
CD246 Anaplastic lymphoma kinase T cells 238  
CD247 Zeta chain T cells 919 
Table 2.

New CD nomenclature for ILT/LIR and KIR molecules

DesignationName
The ILT/LIR family  
 CD85a ILT5/LIR3 
 CD85b ILT8  
 CD85c LIR8  
 CD85d ILT4/LIR2, MIR10 
 CD85e ILT6/LIR4  
 CD85f ILT11  
 CD85g ILT7 
 CD85h ILT1/LIR7  
 CD85i LIR6  
 CD85j ILT2/LIR1, MIR7  
 CD85k ILT3/LIR5  
 CD85l ILT9  
 CD85m ILT10 
The KIR family  
 CD158z KIR3DL7/KIRC1  
 CD158b1 and CD158b2 KIR2DL2/p58.2 and KIR2DL3/p58.3 
 CD158a KIR2DL1/p58.1  
 CD158c KIR2DS6/KIRX 
 CD158d KIR2DL4  
 CD158e1 and CD158e2 KIR3DL1/p70 and KIR3DS1/p70  
 CD158f KIR2DL5  
 CD158g KIR2DS5 
 CD158h KIR2DS1/p50.1  
 CD158i KIR2DS4/p50.3 
 CD158j KIR2DS2/p50.2  
 CD158k KIR3DL2/p140 
DesignationName
The ILT/LIR family  
 CD85a ILT5/LIR3 
 CD85b ILT8  
 CD85c LIR8  
 CD85d ILT4/LIR2, MIR10 
 CD85e ILT6/LIR4  
 CD85f ILT11  
 CD85g ILT7 
 CD85h ILT1/LIR7  
 CD85i LIR6  
 CD85j ILT2/LIR1, MIR7  
 CD85k ILT3/LIR5  
 CD85l ILT9  
 CD85m ILT10 
The KIR family  
 CD158z KIR3DL7/KIRC1  
 CD158b1 and CD158b2 KIR2DL2/p58.2 and KIR2DL3/p58.3 
 CD158a KIR2DL1/p58.1  
 CD158c KIR2DS6/KIRX 
 CD158d KIR2DL4  
 CD158e1 and CD158e2 KIR3DL1/p70 and KIR3DS1/p70  
 CD158f KIR2DL5  
 CD158g KIR2DS5 
 CD158h KIR2DS1/p50.1  
 CD158i KIR2DS4/p50.3 
 CD158j KIR2DS2/p50.2  
 CD158k KIR3DL2/p140 

For further details of this classification, based on the position of the genes on chromosome 19q;13.4 from centromeric to telomeric loci, see André et al.3 

The eighth workshop. Plans are well advanced for the eighth workshop, to be organized in Adelaide, Australia, in 2004 under the aegis of Professor H. Zola (see http://www.hlda8.org). It is sometimes assumed that the catalogue of surface molecules associated with human hemopoietic cells is now essentially complete, but there is abundant evidence in the literature for novel surface molecules that would merit study at HLDA8, and that could provide the basis for new CD designations. Table 3 comprises both a list of potential new molecules reported following the production of monoclonal antibodies and also a longer list of surface molecules identified via gene cloning, for which in most instances, no antibodies are available. Specific and well-characterized reagents, whether monoclonal or polyclonal, are needed not only for detecting these new “virtual” molecules but also for defining functional domains, for characterizing 3-dimensional protein structure, and for analyzing protein-protein interactions. It may be added that cloning of gene sequences often reveals multiple members of new or existing molecular families (eg, the Toll-like receptors) and may identify surface receptors that bind more than one ligand or vice versa (eg, the TALL-1 and APRIL ligands for TACI and BCMA). Furthermore, a number of leukocyte-associated markers have been cloned from mice and other species, and almost all will have human homologues. HLDA8 will provide a forum for a range of antibody-based studies relating to this accumulating corpus of genomic and proteomic data. As in HLDA7, in which 4 new sections were added, it may be possible to include new cell types in HLDA8. For example, many neuronal cells express surface proteins found on leukocytes and vice versa (eg, CD56, CD100, CD168, CD171). Furthermore, the guidance cues used by neuronal cells share similarities to those involved in leukocyte extravasation, and the expression of these molecules in common may reflect shared biological processes. It may also be noted that other molecules such as the mucins, thought to be primarily associated with epithelial cells, are now being described on leukocytes.

Table 3.

Examples of possible future CD specificities

MoleculeMolecule sizeCell typesCommentsReference(s)
Identified following antibody production     
 AM-3K antigen 70 & 120 kd Macrophages —  4  
 BDCA-2, BDCA-3, & BDCA-4 antigens ND Dendritic cells Identifies subsets of dendritic cells 5  
 BENE 17 kd Endothelium “Raft-associated” member of MAL family; interacts with caveolin-1 6  
 CMRF-44 ND Dendritic cells Differentiation/activation marker 7, 8  
 CMRF-56 95 kd Dendritic cells Differentiation/activation marker 7, 8  
 H47 antigen 100 kd3-150(120 kd) T cells & most NK cells, B cells, and monocytes Involved in T cell activation? 9  
 Hal-1 200 kd3-150 (100 kd) T cells, EBV-transformed B-cells, myelomonocytic cells, anaplastic large cell lymphoma New lymphoma marker? 10  
 LAK1 antigen 120 kd LGL and LAK cells —  11  
 LAK2 antigen 110 + 140 kd LGL and LAK cells —  11  
 NKp80 80 kd dimer NK cells and CD56-positive T cells Novel member of the killer cell lectinlike receptor gene family, encoded by KLRF1 gene; triggers NK cell cytotoxicity 12, 13  
 VAP-13-151 90 kd Endothelium Mediates lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion; has monoamine oxidase activity 14, 15  
 Wue-1 antigen 94 kd Plasma cells Stimulates growth of plasma cells 16  
Identified via gene cloning     
 BCMA3-152 184 aa B cells TNFR family member; receptor for TALL-1 and APRIL 17, 18  
 B7-H2 302 aa Dendritic cells New member of B7 family; binds ICOS on activated T cells 19  
 CLEC-1 280 aa Dendritic cells Novel C-type lectin-like receptor with cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motif 20  
 CMRF-35A 224 aa NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and subset of T lymphocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptors; CMRF-35H contains 3 cytoplasmic tyrosine based motifs 21, 22  
 CMRF-35H 300 aa NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and subset of T lymphocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptors; CMRF-35H contains 3 cytoplasmic tyrosine based motifs 21,22  
 CS1 ND NK cells Novel receptor belonging to CD2 subset of Ig superfamily 23  
 DC-STAMP 470 aa Dendritic cells Novel protein containing 7 putative transmembrane domains 24  
 EMR3 652 aa Mainly leucocyte restricted. Highest levels on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages Novel EGF-TM7 molecule; interacts with a surface ligand on myeloid cells 25  
 Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) ND Endothelial cells, monocytes —  26  
 GPRv53 390 aa Leukocytes G-protein-coupled histamine receptor 27  
 IRTA1, IRTA2 ND Subpopulations of B cells Homologous to the Fc and inhibitory receptor families 28  
 M160 1453 aa Macrophages New member of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily 29  
 MARCO3-153 520 aa Macrophages Class A scavenger receptor; involved in bacterial clearance in vivo 30, 31  
 TACI 293 aa B cells TNFR family member; receptor for TALL-1 and APRIL 32  
 TREM-13-155 ND Neutrophils and subset of monocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptor; triggers neutrophil secretion (eg, IL-8) and degranulation; associates with DAP12 33, 34  
 TREM-23-155 ND Neutrophils and subset of macrophages Novel Ig superfamily receptor; activates macrophages; associates with DAP12 33, 34  
MoleculeMolecule sizeCell typesCommentsReference(s)
Identified following antibody production     
 AM-3K antigen 70 & 120 kd Macrophages —  4  
 BDCA-2, BDCA-3, & BDCA-4 antigens ND Dendritic cells Identifies subsets of dendritic cells 5  
 BENE 17 kd Endothelium “Raft-associated” member of MAL family; interacts with caveolin-1 6  
 CMRF-44 ND Dendritic cells Differentiation/activation marker 7, 8  
 CMRF-56 95 kd Dendritic cells Differentiation/activation marker 7, 8  
 H47 antigen 100 kd3-150(120 kd) T cells & most NK cells, B cells, and monocytes Involved in T cell activation? 9  
 Hal-1 200 kd3-150 (100 kd) T cells, EBV-transformed B-cells, myelomonocytic cells, anaplastic large cell lymphoma New lymphoma marker? 10  
 LAK1 antigen 120 kd LGL and LAK cells —  11  
 LAK2 antigen 110 + 140 kd LGL and LAK cells —  11  
 NKp80 80 kd dimer NK cells and CD56-positive T cells Novel member of the killer cell lectinlike receptor gene family, encoded by KLRF1 gene; triggers NK cell cytotoxicity 12, 13  
 VAP-13-151 90 kd Endothelium Mediates lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion; has monoamine oxidase activity 14, 15  
 Wue-1 antigen 94 kd Plasma cells Stimulates growth of plasma cells 16  
Identified via gene cloning     
 BCMA3-152 184 aa B cells TNFR family member; receptor for TALL-1 and APRIL 17, 18  
 B7-H2 302 aa Dendritic cells New member of B7 family; binds ICOS on activated T cells 19  
 CLEC-1 280 aa Dendritic cells Novel C-type lectin-like receptor with cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motif 20  
 CMRF-35A 224 aa NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and subset of T lymphocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptors; CMRF-35H contains 3 cytoplasmic tyrosine based motifs 21, 22  
 CMRF-35H 300 aa NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells and subset of T lymphocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptors; CMRF-35H contains 3 cytoplasmic tyrosine based motifs 21,22  
 CS1 ND NK cells Novel receptor belonging to CD2 subset of Ig superfamily 23  
 DC-STAMP 470 aa Dendritic cells Novel protein containing 7 putative transmembrane domains 24  
 EMR3 652 aa Mainly leucocyte restricted. Highest levels on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages Novel EGF-TM7 molecule; interacts with a surface ligand on myeloid cells 25  
 Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) ND Endothelial cells, monocytes —  26  
 GPRv53 390 aa Leukocytes G-protein-coupled histamine receptor 27  
 IRTA1, IRTA2 ND Subpopulations of B cells Homologous to the Fc and inhibitory receptor families 28  
 M160 1453 aa Macrophages New member of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily 29  
 MARCO3-153 520 aa Macrophages Class A scavenger receptor; involved in bacterial clearance in vivo 30, 31  
 TACI 293 aa B cells TNFR family member; receptor for TALL-1 and APRIL 32  
 TREM-13-155 ND Neutrophils and subset of monocytes Novel Ig superfamily receptor; triggers neutrophil secretion (eg, IL-8) and degranulation; associates with DAP12 33, 34  
 TREM-23-155 ND Neutrophils and subset of macrophages Novel Ig superfamily receptor; activates macrophages; associates with DAP12 33, 34  

ND indicates not determined.

F3-150

The nonreduced size; reduced size given in parentheses.

F3-151

Vascular adhesion protein.

F3-152

B cell maturation factor.

F3-153

Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

F3-155

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells.

Finally, it remains to be established how the eighth and subsequent HLDA workshops should deal with lineage- or stage-restricted leukocyte molecules that are localized within the cell cytoplasm (or nucleus). Given the importance of many of these molecules in signaling pathways initiated via known surface CD molecules, their identification and study is an inevitable extension of the work of the first seven HLDA workshops. Whether or not a new “intracellular CD” categorization scheme is devised for such molecules, they are of interest for many laboratories studying human hematopoietic cells, and their investigation will be among the aims of the next workshop.

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