1. A case is presented of a Negro woman with Mediterranean anemia who developed megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy in each of three pregnancies.
2. The possibility that Mediterranean anemia predisposes to the development of pernicious anemia of pregnancy is discussed.
3. With megaloblastic erythropoiesis, anemia became more severe, but the characteristic red cell hypochromia of Mediterranean disease was masked.
4. Purified liver extract failed to protect against the development of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy but folic acid produced a satisfactory therapeutic response.