Nitric oxide (NO) generated from L-arginine and molecular oxygen by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been shown to influence hepatocellular function and pathology in response to ischemia and certain hepatotoxins. In the present study, we examined the liver of a transgenic line of sickle cell mice for hepatocellular injury and localization of two isoforms of NOS, the endothelial constitutively expressed isoform (EcNOS) and the inducible isoform (iNOS) by immunohistochemistry. Diffuse expression of EcNOS was observed in hepatocytes of control and sickle cell animals maintained under room air conditions. In contrast, iNOS was observed only in the sickle cell mice, well-localized to hepatocytes surrounding the central veins of the lobules. When normal mice were exposed to hypoxic conditions for 4 to 5 days, iNOS immunostaining appeared de novo in a patchy distribution throughout the liver lobules. In the sickle cell mice, hypoxia appeared to increase the subjective intensity of pericentral staining of iNOS. Liver histology was normal in the sickle cell mice maintained under room air conditions, but showed multifocal areas of necrosis when sickling was exacerbated by chronic hypoxic conditions. However, a pericentral zone of preserved architecture was present, corresponding to the region of iNOS staining. We postulate that pericentral induction of iNOS under ambient conditions occurs in transgenic sickle cell mice in response to particularly intense hypoxic conditions near the central veins of the liver. Increases in NO synthesis may occur in this region, which would serve to protect these cells from ischemic damage either directly or by maintaining blood flow. These findings could be relevant to liver pathophysiology in patients with sickle cell disease.