Cells of the macrophage lineage (MAC) play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the knowledge on the extent of macrophage involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection is still incomplete. In this study we examined the secretory repertoire of HIV-infected MAC with respect to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, IL-8, and the hematopoietic growth factors M-, G- and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Using a culture system on hydrophobic teflon membranes, blood-derived MO from healthy donors were infected with a monocytotropic HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1D117IIII). We analyzed the constitutive and lipopolysaccharides-stimulated secretion of MO/MAC early after infection as well as in long-term cultured, virus-replicating cells. The release of proinflammatory mediators and hematopoietic growth factors were differentially regulated after infection with HIV: the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 was upregulated, whereas a down-regulation of M-, G-, and GM-CSF could be observed. These results may provide some explanation for the immunological dysfunction, the hematopoietic failure and the chronic inflammatory disease occurring in HIV-infected patients.

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