Severe suppression of the hematopoietic system is a major factor in limiting chemotherapy dose escalation. To determine whether a combination of human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and thrombopoietin (TPO) would alter recovery of platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), or neutrophils after myeloablative therapy, myelosuppressed mice were treated with sc injections of TPO (90 micrograms/kg), G-CSF (250 micrograms/kg). TPO plus G-CSF or vehicle and complete blood counts were measured. Marrow and spleen cells were obtained at various times and assayed for erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic progenitors. The prolonged neutropenia in vehicle controls (14 days) was significantly shortened in mice treated with G-CSF or TPO for 14 days. The combination of TPO plus G-CSF further reduced the duration of neutropenia. TPO and TPO plus G-CSF treatments also significantly shortened thrombocytopenia compared to vehicle. Recovery of RBCs was also enhanced in mice treated with either G-CSF or TPO, or the combination. Furthermore, treatment with G-CSF and/or TPO hastened myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocyte progenitor recovery compared to vehicle controls. These results show that the combination of TPO plus G-CSF acts synergistically to accelerate neutrophil recovery in myelosuppressed mice and does not compromise the platelet or RBC response to TPO therapy.

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