Chromosome 7 translocations, deletions, or monosomy are associated with myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia both in children and adults. These chromosomal anomalies represent one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities associated with these diseases and usually herald a poor prognosis. In this study two cosmid DNA probes that mapped to 7q22.1 and were known to be separated by approximately 500 kb were identified to flank the proximal inversion breakpoint in a patient carrying a constitutional inversion (7q22.1–34) associated with MDS. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone that encompassed the two cosmids was identified and shown to span the breakpoint. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was then used to analyze six additional patients with myelodysplasia and chromosomal rearrangements of the 7q22 region (three patients had translocations and three carried deletions). The breakpoint in one of the patients was found to be contained within the same YAC clone that spanned the inversion breakpoint. Moreover, this same interval was determined to be absent in all three patients with chromosomal deletions. These results suggest that this segment of DNA on chromosome 7q22.1 may contain specific gene(s) that have a significant role in myeloid malignancies.