Activation of factor X by both the unactivated tissue factor:factor VII complex (TF:VII) and the activated tissue factor:factor VIIa complex (TF:VIIa) has been studied in the presence of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), antithrombin III (ATIII), and heparin. At near-plasma concentrations of TFPI, ATIII, and factor X, factor X activation that occurs in response to TF:VII is essentially abolished in the presence of heparin (0.5 micromol/L). This effect requires both inhibitors, acting on different targets: (1) ATIII, which in the presence of heparin blocks the activation of TF:VII, and (2) TFPI, which inhibits the TF:VIIa that is generated. In the absence of ATIII, TFPI alone with heparin reduces but does not abolish factor X activation. Conversely, in the absence of TFPI, ATIII + heparin reduces but does not abolish TF:VIIa generation and allows continuing activation of factor X. These results indicated that when the unactivated TF:VII complex is the initiating stimulus, heparin-dependent reduction in the rate and extent of factor X activation requires both ATIII and TFPI. In contrast, if TF:VIIa is used to initiate activation, only TFPI is involved in its regulation.

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