The human cytokine, interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated monocytes, T cells, keratinocytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells and is structurally related to the alpha subfamily of chemotactic cytokines called chemokines (Taub and Oppenheim, Cytokine 5:175, 1993). However, in contrast to other alpha chemokines that induce neutrophil migration, IP-10 has been shown to chemoattract monocytes and T lymphocytes in vitro, suggesting a role in T-cell-mediated immune responses. We therefore examined the effects of human IP-10 after in vivo administration. IP-10 induces significant mononuclear cell infiltration after subcutaneous injections in normal mice. In an effort to study the in vivo effects of IP-10 on human leukocyte migration, we then examined the ability of recombinant human IP-10 (rhIP-10) to induce human-T-cell infiltration using a human/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mouse model. SCID mice received an intraperitoneal injection of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (10(8) cells), followed by a subcutaneous injection of rhIP- 10 (1 micrograms/injection) in the hind flank for 4 hours or sequential injections for 3 days. The skin and underlying tissue from the rhIP-10 injection site were then biopsied and examined for the extent of mononuclear cell infiltration. rhIP-10 again induced significant mononuclear cell accumulation 72 hours after injection. Immunohistologic evaluation determined that a significant number of human CD3+ T cells were recruited in response to rhIP-10 injections. These results show that rhIP-10 is capable of inducing human T-cell migration in vivo and may play an important role in monocyte and lymphocyte recruitment into inflammatory sites.

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