In resting platelets, the GPIb-IX complex, the receptor for the von Willebrand factor (vWF), is linked to underlying actin filaments by actin-binding protein (ABP-280). Thrombin stimulation of human platelets leads to a decrease in the surface expression of the GPIb-IX complex, which is redistributed from the platelet surface into the open canalicular system (OCS). Because the centralization of GPIb-IX is inhibited by cytochalasin, it is believed to be linked to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements that take place during platelet activation. We have further characterized the mechanism of GPIb-IX centralization in platelets in suspension. Following thrombin stimulation, GPIb-IX shifts from the membrane skeleton of the resting cell to the cytoskeleton of the activated cell in a reaction sensitive to cytochalasin B. The cytoskeletal association of GPIb-IX involves ABP- 280, as it correlates with the incorporation of ABP-280 into the activated cytoskeleton and because no dissociation of the ABP-280/GPIb- IX complexes is detected after thrombin activation. However, the incorporation of GPIb-IX into the cytoskeleton is complete within 1 minute, whereas GPIb-IX centralization requires 5 to 10 minutes for completion. The movement of GPIb-IX to the cytoskeleton of activated platelets is therefore necessary, but not sufficient for GPIb-IX centralization. Blockage of cytosolic calcium increases induced by thrombin by loading with the cell permeant calcium chelator Quin-2 AM inhibited GPIb-IX centralization by 70%, but did not prevent its association with the activated cytoskeleton. Quin-2 loading did, however, decrease the incorporation of myosin II into the activated cytoskeleton. The role of myosin II was further probed using the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor wortmannin. Wortmannin prevents myosin II association to the activated cytoskeleton and inhibits GPIb- IX centralization by 50%, without affecting actin assembly or the association of GPIb-IX to the cytoskeleton. Only micromolar concentrations of wortmannin, high enough to inhibit MLCK, prevent GPIb- IX centralization. These results indicate that thrombin-induced GPIb-IX centralization requires a minimum of two steps, one associating GPIb-IX to the activated cytoskeleton and the second requiring myosin II activation. The involvement of myosin II implies that GPIb-IX/ABP-280 complexes, linked to actin filaments, are pulled into the cell center, and that platelets may exert contractile tension on vWF bound to its receptor.
Thrombin-induced GPIb-IX centralization on the platelet surface requires actin assembly and myosin II activation
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TJ Kovacsovics, JH Hartwig; Thrombin-induced GPIb-IX centralization on the platelet surface requires actin assembly and myosin II activation. Blood 1996; 87 (2): 618–629. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V87.2.618.bloodjournal872618
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