The role of T-cell subsets in the induction of tissue factor (TF) production by human monocytes in vitro was investigated. Mitogen stimulation enabled both unfractionated T cells and their CD4+ or CD8+ subsets to promote procoagulant activity (PCA). After mitogen or antigen activation, all seven T-cell clones with Th1 cytokine profile, but none of seven Th2 clones, induced TF production and PCA. T-cell blasts from four Th1 activated clones were fixed with paraformaldehyde and added to monocytes in the presence of medium alone or their supernatants. Addition of either fixed Th1 cells or their supernatants induced low TF production (0.2 to 0.6 ng/mL), whereas addition of both resulted in much higher TF synthesis (1.8 to 3.4 ng/mL). Among Th1-type cytokines, only interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced minimal TF production (0.1 to 0.4 ng/mL). No TF synthesis was induced by activated and fixed Th2 cells and/or their supernatants, whereas combined addition of fixed Th2 cells and Th1 supernatants or IFN-gamma induced noticeable TF production. The addition of either anti-IFN-gamma antibody or Th2 supernatants to monocytes stimulated with activated and fixed Th1 cells plus their supernatant resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of TF synthesis, which was partially restored by neutralization of interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-10. Addition of recombinant IL-4, IL-13, or IL-10, but not IL-5, inhibited the Th1- induced TF production by monocytes. Data indicate that both CD8+ and CD4+ Th1, but not Th2, T cells can help TF production and PCA. Both cell-to-cell contact with activated T cells and Th1-type cytokines, in particular IFN-gamma, are required for optimal TF synthesis, whereas Th2-derived cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10) are inhibitory. This may be of potential interest for future therapeutic strategies.

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