CD28 and CD40 are important activation pathways for T and B lymphocytes, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype of plasma cells (PCs) and the expression of these two molecules, CD28 and CD40. Therefore, we have compared their expression on normal PCs from bone marrows and tonsils with that of freshly explanted malignant PCs from 31 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and those from 12 human myeloma cell lines. For this purpose, we first described a new approach to identify plasma cells in bone marrow using two-color immunofluorescence analysis with anti-CD38 and B-B4 antibodies. B-B4 specifically recognizes all PC; all B-B4 cells are located within the CD38 bright fraction and vice versa. CD19 and CD56 expression, which was previously shown to discriminate normal from malignant PCs, was also evaluated. In the current report, we show that normal PCs express CD19, CD40, and CD56 (weakly as a subset) and lack CD28. Regardless of whether they express CD19, CD56 is clearly upregulated during the medullary chronic and accelerated phases of MM, but is absent in patients with extramedullary involvement. Although the level of CD40 expression is variable, only patients in accelerated phases expressed high CD40 levels. Finally, whereas CD28 was negative in chronic phase (as in normal PCs), it was expressed in 63% of the patients in accelerated phases and 100% of cell lines. Our data strongly suggest that both disease activity and medullary homing (or not) are correlated with the expression of CD19, CD40, CD28, and CD56 on human myeloma cells.