The pharmacokinetics of busulfan, given as a single daily dose (either 4 mg/kg or 150 mg/m2), was determined in 22 children undergoing bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. The single daily dose regimen showed similar pharmacokinetics to previously reported regimens of 4 x 1 mg/kg, except for fourfold higher mean peak plasma levels and negligible trough levels. Daily systemic exposure for single dose regimens based on weight (4 mg/kg) or surface area (150 mg/m2), respectively were very similar to regimens of (4 x 1 mg/kg) or (4 x 37.5 mg/m2). Dose (milligrams per kilogram), peak plasma level, and area under the curve (AUC) were all higher in 12 children treated with 150 mg/m2 busulfan than in 9 children treated with 4 mg/kg. AUC was age dependent for the 4 mg/kg dose but not for the 150 mg/m2 dose. The use of a 150 mg/m2 dose allows escalation of the dose above 4 mg/kg, eliminating the tendency for younger children to receive lower systemic exposure. Little toxicity was observed in this study. Clearance and distribution volume correlated negatively with age, and AUC correlated positively with dose (milligram per kilogram). Administration of busulfan as crushed rather than whole tablets reduced the delay time for appearance of busulfan in plasma but had no effect on absorption or other pharmacokinetic parameters.