Eighteen patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) with evidence of bone marrow (BM) aplasia underwent allogenic BM transplants (BMT) from matched sibling donors (MSD). Median age at BMT was 7.6 years. Conditioning consisted of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY; 5 mg/kg x 4 days) and thoracoabdominal irradiation (TAI; 400 cGy). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis included cyclosporin A and prednisone. In addition antithymocyte globulin (ATG) was administered in the pretransplant period to promote engraftment and in the posttransplant period for additional GVHD prophylaxis. Engraftment occurred rapidly (median, 12 days for an absolute neutrophil count > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/L; median, 22 days for platelet count > or = 50 x 10(9)/L). Seventeen patients have sustained engraftment and are transfusion-independent, with Lansky scores of 100% at median follow-up of 27 months. One patient developed graft failure 4 months after initial engraftment and required a second BM infusion. None of the patients developed acute GVHD; 3 patients (16%) developed chronic GVHD. BMT is a feasible option for FA patients having an MSD and should be performed at a young age and early in the course of the disease, before the development of complications. We believe the addition of ATG to the transplant regimen of low-dose CY, TAI, and cyclosporin was responsible for improvement in the survival of FA patients undergoing BMT. The regimen was well tolerated and was associated with a low incidence of complications including GVHD.