T-cell activation is initiated after T-cell receptor binding to antigen, but also requires interactions between costimulatory molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells. An important costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes has been recently identified and termed B7–2 or B70. Independently, a new Cluster of Differentiation was defined in the Fifth International Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop as CD86, a molecule predominantly expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes. In this study, the two monoclonal antibodies that defined CD86, FUN-1 and BU-63, were shown to bind to cDNA transfected cells expressing B7– 2/B70. The FUN-1 monoclonal antibody also completely blocked the costimulatory activity of B7–2/B70 in functional assays. Therefore, the serologically defined CD86 differentiation antigen is the B7–2/B70 molecule.