In this study, we have compared the ability of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) alone and the combination of low doses of recombinant rat pegylated stem cell factor (rrSCF-PEG) plus rhG-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) with long-term engrafting potential. Female recipient irradiated mice were transplanted with PBPCs from male mice that were mobilized with rhG-CSF alone (group A) or rrSCF-PEG plus rhG-CSF (group B). As previously shown, greater short-term survival resulted in group B compared with group A, with 80% and 40% survival at 30 days posttransplant, respectively. Both groups of animals showed long-term donor-derived engraftment in greater than 95% of animals, as determined by quantitative specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of a Y chromosome sequence from whole blood of the mice at 6 to 12 months posttransplantation. Analysis of individual granulocyte-macrophage colonies, picked up from semisolid methylcellulose culture of bone marrow cells from transplanted mice, resulted in detection of donor- derived DNA in 98% of colonies from group B mice compared with 81% from group A mice. These data show that cells with long-term potential are mobilized by rhG-CSF alone and the combination of rrSCF-PEG plus rhG- CSF. Furthermore, an increased number of cells with short-term and long- term engraftment potential was obtained with rrSCF-PEG plus rhG-CSF compared with rhG-CSF alone.