Monoclonal antibodies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 1 (EBNA1) were used to examine conventional paraffin sections from a series of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders by immunohistochemistry. The presence of latent EBV infection in tumor cells was determined by in situ hybridization for the Epstein-Barr virus early RNAs (EBERs). Of those EBER-positive cases a total of 28 of 40 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 3 of 3 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma, and 8 of 8 cases of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral B-cell lymphoma expressed detectable amounts of EBNA1. In the positive cases, expression was confined to the tumor cells. No reactivity was detected in EBV-negative cases of the above tumors or in 8 cases of EBV-negative cases of large cell anaplastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This report provides the first unequivocal evidence for the expression of the EBNA1 protein in the tumor cells of Hodgkin's disease and validates an important reagent with which to analyze the role of EBV in various virus-associated malignancies.