Previous studies found that bone marrow (BM) allografts from DLA- identical littermates resulted in survival of two thirds of recipient dogs after otherwise lethal doses of 450 to 600 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI) because of successful allografts or autologous recovery after rejection of the allografts. The current study asked whether survival could be further improved by treating allograft recipients with recombinant canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), stem cell factor (SCF), or G-CSF/SCF. Of 21 dogs, 14 (67%) receiving allografts but no growth factors survived, 10 with successful allografts (including 5 mixed chimeras) and 4 with autologous recovery; whereas 7 animals died, 5 from infections during BM aplasia and 2 from acute graft-versus-host disease. By comparison, 30 of 34 dogs (88%) receiving hematopoietic growth factors in addition to the BM graft survived, 17 with successful allografts (including 10 mixed chimeras) and 13 with autologous recovery; whereas 4 died, all with infection related to BM aplasia after rejection of the allograft. Survival was similar for recipients of G-CSF, SCF, or the combination of G-CSF and SCF. Logistic regression analyses, which accounted for possible effects of TBI dose, showed a trend for improved survival in dogs receiving growth factors (P = .09), no change in allogeneic engraftment (P = .74), and a slight increase in autologous recovery (P = .22). In agreement with previous data, we found that grafts of BM from DLA-identical littermates improved survival of recipient dogs exposed to low but otherwise lethal doses of TBI. A further improvement in survival could be achieved by additional treatment with G-CSF, SCF, or G-CSF/SCF. Results suggest that treatment by hematopoietic growth factors along with BM grafts should be considered for victims of radiation accidents.