The mechanisms of the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) clones proliferative advantage over normal clones are currently unknown. They may involve an insensitivity to a negative regulation of a growth factor-independent proliferation. Clonogenic progenitors from CML patient blood or marrow in chronic phase were grown either in the presence or absence of recombinant growth factors. No erythroid colonies were observed in the absence of any cytokine. In contrast, erythroid colonies composed of fully mature hemoglobinized erythroblasts (day 12 burst-forming units-erythroid) were obtained in the presence of Steel factor (SF) alone. Addition of erythropoietin (Epo) to SF either had no effect on the cloning efficiency or increased up to 50% the number of erythroid colonies. No erythroid growth was observed when cultures were stimulated by interleukin-3 or granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor alone. Similar erythroid growth in the presence of SF but without Epo was obtained in “serum-free” cultures when purified blood CML CD34+ cells were grown. This growth of erythroid colonies in the absence of Epo was not accounted for by an autocrine stimulation loop by Epo, because neutralizing antibodies against Epo did not inhibit it. This abnormal response to growth factor was specifically observed in the CML clone, as shown by the presence of the BCR-ABL transcript in all of these erythroid colonies. The direct implication of BCR-ABL was further documented (1) by studies of alpha- interferon-treated patients with a chimerism in which the abnormal growth correlates with the presence of the malignant clone and (2) by the use of antisense oligonucleotide against BCR-ABL transcript, which abrogated this abnormal growth. Finally, erythroid growth in the SF presence was greatly diminished by herbimycin A, whereas, at the same concentration, this tyrosine kinase inhibitor had no marked effect on erythroid colony formation in the presence of SF plus Epo on CML or normal marrow cells. This result suggests that the BCR-ABL kinase activity leads directly to this Epo-independent terminal differentiation requiring, however, the presence of SF.