Gaucher disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease in which the loss in functional activity of glucocerebrosidase (GC) results in the storage of its lipid substrate in cells of the macrophage lineage. A gene therapy approach involving retroviral transduction of autologous bone marrow (BM) followed by transplantation has been recently approved for clinical trial. Amelioration of the disease symptoms may depend on the replacement of diseased macrophages with incoming cells expressing human GC; however, the processes of donor cell engraftment and vector gene expression have not been addressed at the cellular level in relevant tissues. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive immunohistologic study of macrophage and microglia replacement after murine BM transplantation with retrovirus-marked BM. Serial quantitative PCR analyses were employed to provide an overview of the time course of engraftment of vector-marked cells in a panel of tissues. Following reconstitution of hematopoietic tissues with vector- marked donor cells at early stages, GC+ cells began to infiltrate the liver, lung, brain, and spinal cord by 3 months after transplant. Immunohistochemical analyses of PCR+ tissues using the 8E4 monoclonal antibody specific for human GC revealed that macrophages expressing human GC had partially reconstituted the Mac-1+ population in all tissues in a manner characteristic to each tissue type. In the brain, 20% of the total microglia had been replaced with donor cells expressing GC by 3 to 4 months after transplant. The finding that significant numbers of donor cells expressing a retroviral gene product immigrate to the central nervous system suggests that gene therapy for neuronopathic forms of lysosomal storage diseases as well as antiviral gene therapy for AIDS may be feasible.