Monocytes and macrophages can take up nonopsonized particles through a direct phagocytic process and IgG-coated particles through combined mechanisms of nonspecific phagocytosis and internalization mediated by specific Fc receptors for IgG (Fc gamma R) on the plasma membrane. In this study, we report the effect of phagocytosis of nonopsonized latex beads on the levels of expression of Fc gamma receptors in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as measured by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorter [FACS]). Macrophages were exposed to green fluorescent 1-micron polystyrene beads before labeling for Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma R-II, and Fc gamma R-III, respectively, with 32.2, 2E1, and 3G8 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and a phycoerythrin (PE)- conjugated secondary Ab to permit dual-channel analysis of fluorescence intensity by FACS. Macrophages that had phagocytosed at least one bead showed reduced levels of surface Fc gamma R-III but not Fc gamma R-I or Fc gamma R-II when compared with cells that had never been exposed to beads. Moreover, cells that were not in direct contact with beads, but that shared medium with cells that had phagocytosed beads also had reduced levels of Fc gamma R-III but not Fc gamma R-I or Fc gamma R-II, suggesting a cytokine-mediated mechanism of Fc gamma R-III downregulation. Phagocytosis of 1-micron beads alone stimulated macrophages to release tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The medium from macrophages phagocytosing beads could stimulate other macrophages not in direct contact with beads to release TNF-alpha as well, but such paracrine-triggered release could be reduced by more than 50% if the medium from the phagocytosing cells was first treated with a neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibody. Moreover, the paracrine downregulation of Fc gamma R-III described above could also be blocked if the neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibody was added to the medium of phagocytosing cells. Treatment of macrophages with recombinant human TNF-alpha in the absence of beads induced decreased levels of Fc gamma R-III but not of Fc gamma R-II. These results show that paracrine downregulation of Fc gamma R-III is mediated by a TNF-alpha-dependent mechanism.

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