A monoclonal IgMK (IgMGAS) cold agglutinin (CA) of the infrequent anti- Gd specificity, found in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, has been characterized. IgMGAS uses a VH gene homologous (93.7%) to the reported VH251 germ-line, one of the two functional genes of the VH5 family, with differences in both framework regions and complementary determining regions (CDR). The VL gene is homologous to the reported 15AVK1 germ-line gene, recently described in an anti-i CA, with differences mostly clustered in CDR. In the patient's serum, IgMGAS coexisted with a monoclonal IgG3K (IgGGAS) that lacked CA activity but expressed the private idiotopes found on IgMGAS. Both Ig lacked reactivity with antibodies detecting VH1 or VHIII or VKIII subgroup regions or the VH4–21 gene product that is expressed by anti-I/i CAs. The K chains from both Igs showed the same isoelectrical mobility. Moreover, the k chains from both serum Igs showed the same N-terminal amino acid sequence. This sequence was identical to that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of VK1GAS gene segment, including one discrepancy at position 15 (Ile for Val) with respect to the consensus VK1 subgroup regions. Although these data do not exclude a possible independent clonal origin, they are consistent with the notion that IgGGAS might be clonally related to IgMGAS.