A novel deletion of approximately 27 kb with the 5′ breakpoint 1.5 to 2.2 kb upstream of the beta-globin gene, and the 3′ breakpoint approximately 24 kb downstream of the beta-globin gene, has been found in five members of two families from Southeast Asia (Vietnam and Cambodia). Six members of another family from China, previously reported from our laboratory, have also been shown to carry this deletion. The patients presented with mild hypochromia and microcytosis, a hemoglobin (Hb) A2 level of approximately 4.0%, and a markedly increased, heterocellularly distributed, Hb F level (14.0 to 26.0%). In vitro globin-chain synthesis showed a mild imbalance with appreciable gamma-chain compensation (alpha/beta + gamma ratio of 1.46). The 3′ end of this deletion includes the 3′HS-1, and we hypothesize that removal of this region results in the loss of its gamma-globin gene-silencing effect, which causes a markedly elevated Hb F level with a modest increase in Hb A2 levels, unlike the situation in other deletional beta zero-thalassemias. The possible influence of particular sequence variations in the locus control region 5′HS-2 and the G gamma promoter, present on the chromosome with this deletion, on the overall gamma-globin gene should also be considered.