We tested whether the in vivo infusion of recombinant, soluble CTLA4 fused with Ig heavy chains, as a surrogate ligand used to block CD28/CTLA4 T-cell costimulation, could prevent efficient T-cell activation and thereby reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Lethally irradiated B10.BR recipients of major histocompatibility complex disparate C57BL/6 donor grafts received intraperitoneal injections of human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) or murine CTLA4-Ig (mCTLA4-Ig) in various doses and schedules beginning on day -1 or day 0 of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In all five experiments, recipients of CTLA4-Ig had a significantly higher actuarial survival rate compared to mice injected with an irrelevant antibody control (L6) or saline alone. Survival rates in recipients of hL6 or PBS were 0% at 29 to 45 days post-BMT. In recipients of CTLA4-Ig, survival rates were as high as 63% mice surviving 3 months post-BMT. However, protection was somewhat variable and recipients of CTLA4-Ig were not GVHD-free by body weight, clinical appearance, and histopathologic examination. There were no significant differences in the survival rates in comparing injection dose, injection duration, or species of CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig v mCTLA4- Ig). Splenic and peripheral blood flow cytometry studies of long-term hCTLA4-Ig-injected survivors showed a significant peripheral B-cell and CD4+ T-cell lymphopenia, consistent with GVHD. A kinetic study of splenic reconstitution was performed in mice that received hCTLA4-Ig and showed that mature splenic localized CD8+ T-cell repopulation was not significantly different in recipients of hCTLA4-Ig compared with hL6, despite the significant increase in actuarial survival rate in that experiment. These data suggest that the beneficial effect of hCTLA4-Ig on survival is not mediated by interfering with mature donor- derived T-cell repopulation post-BMT. Neither hCTLA4-Ig nor mCTLA4-Ig interfered with hematopoietic recovery post-BMT. We conclude that CTLA4- Ig (most likely in combination with other agents) may represent an important new modality for GVHD prevention.