nterleukin-8 (IL-8) is produced by many cell types upon stimulation with bacterial products or inflammation-associated cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1. Interferons (IFNs) represent another group of cytokines that are induced by similar stimuli in inflammatory reactions. We show now that type-I IFNs are potent inhibitors of IL-8 expression in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction of both secretion of IL-8 protein and accumulation of IL-8 mRNA in vitro was observed in several cell types comprising peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from healthy donors and from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), the myelomonocytic cell line THP-1, and bone marrow (BM) stromal cells as a representative model for BM microenvironment. By contrast, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated polymorphonuclear phagocytes IFN failed to suppress IL-8 expression. In untreated patients with CML, a constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA was detected in freshly isolated PBMNC that was markedly reduced 5 hours after therapeutic application of IFN-alpha. The mechanism of IL-8 downregulation was studied more in detail in the THP-1 cell line. The experiments showed that de novo protein synthesis was not required for the inhibitory effect. RNA decay analysis and nuclear run-on assays suggest that in THP-1 cell line the inhibition of IL-8 expression is predominantly regulated at the posttranscriptional level.