We report here that compound heterozygosity for hemoglobin Korle-Bu (HbKB) and HbC (beta 6 Glu-->Lys) is associated with moderate chronic hemolytic anemia with microcytosis. To understand the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we have studied the effect of Hb Korle-Bu (KB = beta 73 Asp-->Asn) on the crystallization of HbC. We have previously established that fetal Hb (HbF) inhibits the crystallization of HbC. In contrast, HbS accelerates crystallization affecting the pathogenesis of SC disease. We now report on in vitro crystallization of mixtures of HbKB, HbC, and various amounts of HbF and the native hemolysate of a child who is a compound heterozygote for HbKB and HbC. At 6 months of age, the propositus' hemolysate contained 55% HbKB, 39% HbC, and 6% HbF. Crystal formed within 2 minutes compared with 30 minutes for the mixture of 40% HbC:60% HbS and with 180 minutes for 40% HbC:60% HbA. The morphology of the crystals formed was cubic, in contrast with the tetragonal crystals observed in CC and SC disease. Early crystals did not exhibit “sharp edges” until 45 minutes. Purified HbKB formed aggregates but not crystals after 24 hours. Isopycnic gradients showed that the KB/C compound heterozygotes have red blood cell (RBC) densities intermediate between the AC and CC phenotype and similar to SC disease. The surface residue beta 73, known to participate in areas of interaction of the deoxy HbS polymer, can now be assigned to areas of contact in HbC containing crystals. The hemolysis observed in the HbKB/C compound heterozygote is likely to be secondary to the acceleration of Hb crystallization. The microcytosis and increased RBC density is clearly the consequence of the presence of HbC, but the basis of the increased RBC pathology compared with AC trait, despite the low proportion of HbC (35% to 40%), remains to be elucidated.