MRP8 and MRP14 are two Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the S-100 family expressed by myelomonocytic cells. Both proteins assemble to noncovalently associated complexes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Members of the S-100 family are known to play a role in cytoskeletal- membrane interactions; therefore, we investigated the subcellular distribution of MRP8/MRP14 and their complexes in human monocytes. Using differential centrifugation and subsequent Western blot or enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay analysis, we found that MRP8/MRP14 were almost completely translocated from the cytoplasma to membrane and cytoskeletal structures in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Using a cross- linking technique, complexed forms of MRP8/MRP14 were found to be associated with the plasma membrane. Analysis of MRP-transfected L132 cells showed that the MRP8 as well as the MRP14 component of the MRP8/MRP14 complex may independently bind to membrane and cytoskeletal structures. Furthermore, immunogold electron microscopy showed a colocalization of MRP8/MRP14 and the intermediate filament type III protein vimentin in A23187-treated monocytes. Our data indicate that, in analogy to other S-100-like proteins, MRP8 and MRP14 play a role in Ca(2+)-dependent cytoskeletal-membrane interactions. Restriction of MRP8/MRP14 expression to distinct stages of myelomonocytic differentiation suggests that these proteins are involved in highly specific pathways of intracellular signaling in phagocytes.