Bone marrow and blood from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome were studied by simultaneous analysis of cell morphology and karyotype. A combined technique of May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) for cell morphology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA probes for detection of cytogenetic aberrations allowed us to investigate cell-lineage-specific chromosomal abnormalities. We introduced video recordings to examine large numbers of cells. Briefly, evaluation was first performed on MGG slides, during which cell position and morphology were recorded on an S-VHS recorder. Subsequently, the same slides were used for FISH. This resulted in the identification of MGG-stained cells on the video screen and, at the same time, the interpretation of FISH signals in the fluorescence microscope. Specimens of bone marrow or blood samples from four patients with different hematologic malignancies were studied. One of these patients was studied before and after cytotoxic treatment. The gain or loss of chromosomes could be detected easily and morphologically assigned to the blasts in all patients and to a variable proportion of the myelomonocytic lineage in two patients, but not to the lymphocytes. Thus, this method provides new possibilities for investigating the clonality of hematologic malignancies.