Of 1,036 children with newly diagnosed non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a demonstrated cytogenetic abnormality treated on the frontline Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) therapeutic trial 8602, there were 33 patients with trisomy 21 as the sole abnormality. Of these 33, 14 had Down syndrome (DS). Although the non-DS (NDS) trisomy 21 cases tended to be older than the DS cases, there were no other significant differences in clinicobiologic features nor in treatment outcomes between the DS and NDS groups, nor between the entire trisomy 21 group and the other chromosome abnormality group. Among NDS patients with +21 and one additional abnormality, +X, +16, -20, and structural abnormalities involving 6q or 12p were common findings. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival (EFS) curves showed a 4-year EFS of 80% (SE, 12%) in NDS trisomy 21 cases, 71% (SE, 22%) in DS cases with trisomy 21 as the sole abnormality, and 69% (SE, 2%) in cases with other chromosome abnormalities. Trisomy 21 as a sole acquired abnormality in NDS patients suggests a good prognosis.