We describe a patient with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (AILD), who subsequently developed large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma of B-cell immunophenotype. At the time of the initial diagnosis, histologic examination of an inguinal lymph node showed typical features of AILD, and there was no evidence of a monoclonal B-cell population by immunohistochemical analysis. In situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were negative. At autopsy 2 years later, the patient had widespread lymph node and organ involvement by large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma of B-cell immunophenotype. Southern blot analysis performed on DNA extracted from lymph nodes, liver, and spleen showed two patterns of Ig heavy chain and kappa light chain gene rearrangements. The T-cell receptor beta chain gene was in the germline configuration. Analysis with an EBV terminal repeat region probe showed two clonal populations that paralleled the Ig gene rearrangement studies. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of EBV within the neoplastic B cells. The data support the hypothesis that EBV was not etiologically related to AILD in this case, and that EBV proliferation may occur after the onset of the disease. Further, the data suggest that some B-cell lymphomas that arise in the setting of AILD resemble EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas that arise in other immunodeficiency states.