Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) acts as a growth stimulatory factor on leukemic B lymphocytes from many patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because TNF induces production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which has been shown to be a growth factor for myeloma and other transformed B cells, we examined the possibility that IL-6 mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of TNF on B-CLL cells. In fact, we found that IL-6 is an inhibitor of B-CLL growth. The addition of recombinant human IL-6 markedly decreased the TNF-induced B-CLL growth, and this decrease was even greater when soluble IL-6 receptor, known to act as IL-6 agonist, was added with recombinant IL-6. Conversely, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to IL-6 and to the IL-6 receptor potentiated the growth stimulation of TNF on B-CLL cells, in line with the possibility that IL-6 functions as a negative feedback regulator of an autocrine TNF action on these B-leukemic cells. Evidence is presented that production of IL-6 by monocytes and B cells of CLL patients is low, suggesting that administration of IL-6 may be beneficial in CLL to reduce the eventual growth stimulation by TNF and, possibly, also the deficiency in platelets and Ig production in this disease.