Retinoic acid exhibits effects on the proliferation and differentiation of many hematopoietic cells. Cellular responsiveness to retinoic acid (RA) is conferred through two distinct classes of nuclear receptors, the RA receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The RARs bind to both 9-cis- and all-trans-RAs, but 9-cis-RA alone directly binds and activates RXR. This suggested that 9-cis-RA could have expanded hematopoietic activities as compared with all-trans-RA. We compared the abilities of 9-cis- and all-trans-RAs to induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of three acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines and fresh leukemic cells from 28 patients and found that: (1) 9-cis-RA in general was more potent than all-trans-RA in suppressing the clonal growth of two AML cell lines and 17 AML samples from patients, including four from individuals with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Eleven leukemic samples, including three from patients with chronic myelogenous or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, were relatively refractory to both retinoids. (2) The range of activities of both retinoids was similar except that the clonal growth of samples from three AML patients were inhibited by 9-cis-RA, but not by all-trans-RA. (3) Both retinoids inhibited the clonal proliferation of leukemia cells without necessarily inducing their differentiation; in fact, the only fresh AML cells that were able to undergo differentiation were from patients with APL and one individual with M2 AML. (4) Both retinoids enhanced myeloid and erythroid clonal growth from normal individuals, and 9-cis-RA showed slightly more stimulation of the myeloid clonal growth than did the all-trans-RA. Our study suggests that 9-cis-RA is worthy of further study for the treatment of selected individuals with AML.

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