Previous studies have shown that the bcl-2 gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that contributes to neoplastic cell expansion primarily by promoting cell survival through interference with “programmed cell death” (PCD), also termed “apoptosis.” Because many chemotherapeutic drugs are capable of initiating pathways leading to apoptosis, we determined whether deregulated bcl-2 expression could render cells resistant to several drugs commonly used in the treatment of non- Hodgkin's lymphomas, including dexamethasone (DEX), methotrexate (MTX), 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine (Ara-C), etoposide (VP-16), vincristine (VC), cisplatin (CP), and hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4- HC). For these experiments, we achieved high levels of p26-Bcl-2 protein production in a human pre-B-cell leukemia line 697 by stable infection with a recombinant bcl-2-containing retrovirus and then compared these cells with control virus-infected 697 cells. Control 697 cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by all drugs tested as defined by DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal-length fragments, cell shrinkage, and subsequent cell death. In contrast, 697 cells with elevated Bcl-2 protein levels exhibited strikingly prolonged cell survival and markedly reduced DNA fragmentation when cultured in the presence of these antineoplastic agents. Although high levels of Bcl-2 protein protected 697 cells from the acute cytotoxic effects of DEX and the other drugs tested, Bcl-2 did not prevent these drugs from suppressing the proliferation of 697 cells. However, when 697 cells were treated with DEX or MTX for 3 days, then washed and cultured in semisolid media without drugs, bcl-2-virus-infected cells gave rise to colonies at much higher frequencies than 697 cells stably infected with control virus. These results indicate that by protecting 697 leukemic cells from the acute cytotoxicity of DEX and some other chemotherapeutic drugs, high levels of p26-Bcl-2 can create the opportunity for re-initiation of cell growth when drugs are withdrawn. The findings may be relevant to clinical correlative studies of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma patients that have found an association between worse prognosis and bcl-2 gene rearrangements or t[14;18] translocations.